Y are there any circumstances in which Western countries could engage directly in the battle for Ukraine? For the moment, there is no question of it, except that Moscow attacks directly the allied territory, covered by article 5 of the Washington treaty, which it was careful not to do until ‘now. But we always think of the use of chemical weapons, which would correspond to the crossing of a moral and legal red line and would undoubtedly lead Western countries to feel obliged to get more involved. We also think of a breakthrough of the Russian army towards Odessa and the realization of the famous “territorial junction” up to Transnistria (which is officially a Moldavian territory), which would make Ukraine a landlocked state. .